The fauna data
The Northern Territory’s environment changes dramatically from north to south, from tropical monsoonal forests and savannah grasslands in the Top End to rugged outback deserts near Alice Springs. This landscape variety means the Territory has rich and diverse wildlife.
In this Open Data Insight, we look at the from the . This is regularly updated data that contains records of mammals, birds, reptiles, frogs and fish found in the Northern Territory. The data also contains listings of threatened invertebrate species (but other invertebrate species are not listed).
The data is closely related to the Northern Territory , which contains records of actual observations of vertebrate fauna in the Northern Territory, including geographic locations of these observations.
The data presented below is from March 2020. And note that fish species include those that occur in waters on the mainland as well as marine waters to the north of the Territory, extending to approximately nine degrees latitude (this is an arbitrary boundary and does not follow any formally recognised jurisdictional boundary).
Fauna in the Northern Territory
Let’s start by doing a simple breakdown of the type of animals found in the Territory. Grouping all the listed species by animal class shows that the Territory has many different types of fish, as well as diverse populations of birds and reptiles.
Number of vertebrate and threatened invertebrate species in the Northern Territory
Chart showing the number of vertebrate and threatened invertebrate species in the Northern Territory by animal class, March 2020. The NT has 1,444 species of fish, 454 types of birds, 366 reptiles, 173 mammals, 52 types of frogs, and 31 threatened species of invertebrates.
The data also records whether the animals are endemic to the Northern Territory (i.e. not found anywhere else), native to the NT, or introduced. This classification has been predominantly completed for birds, reptiles, mammals and frogs. The majority of fish species have not been classified.
We can see many animals are native to the Territory, but 90 are very special — these species of fauna are endemic to the Northern Territory, meaning that they are not found elsewhere.
Native, endemic or introduced? Number of Northern Territory fauna by introduced status
The number of native, endemic and introduced fauna species in the Northern Territory. Note that the introduced status for 1,411 species of fish (out of 1,434) have not been determined.
We can break this down further, and look at the introduced status based on animal class. This shows that while birds are the dominant native fauna in the NT, there are more reptiles endemic to the Territory than other classes of fauna.
In terms of introduced species, mammals top the list, though the most infamous would arguably be the solitary introduced species of frog — the cane toad.
Number of native, endemic and introduced fauna species in the Northern Territory, by animal type
The number of native, endemic and introduced fauna species in the Northern Territory, by animal type. Note that the data lists only threatened invertebrate species (ie. non-threatened invertebrate species are not listed) and the data does not include 1,411 fish species for which introduced status has not been assessed.
The dataset also provides the threatened species status of the Territory’s fauna. Though a significant proportion of the fish population (1431) have not been classified, this data provides a valuable insight into the health of animal populations in the NT.
Birds (292) and reptiles (250) make up most of the 651 animals listed as being of ‘least concern’ (i.e. not considered threatened in the Northern Territory). But on the flip side, 19 species of birds are listed as ‘vulnerable’ and 33 species of birds are listed as ‘near threatened’.
Of the 10 species that are already extinct, nine are mammals (the other being a bird). The one animal that is extinct in the wild is also a mammal — the rufous hare-wallaby (also known as the mala). There are also eight species that are now classified as regionally extinct (i.e. no longer found in the NT).
Threatened species classification of the fauna in the Northern Territory, by animal type
The threatened species classification (ie. health of population) for fauna in the Northern Territory, by animal type
What about those unique 90 species that are endemic to the Territory? How are they faring?
Population health of Northern Territory’s endemic fauna
Chart showing the threatened species classification of fauna endemic to the Northern Territory, by animal type
Almost half (42) of the endemic fauna populations are under stress, with 28 classified as vulnerable, six near threatened, a further six endangered and two listed as critically endangered.
If you do explore this data further, we’d love to hear from you!
Special thanks to Dr Damian Milne, Senior Spatial Scientist within the Flora and Fauna Division (Department of Environment and Natural Resources), for assistance with this article.
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